In his new paper, NOUS member Erwin Dekker analyzes the reasons why Jan Tinbergen was initially hostile to European integration, which he regarded as a poor substitute for an international order. His conviction had three important sources. First his coming of age in The Hague, a government city in a small open country the Netherlands, known for its international institutions such as the Peace Palace. Second his work on economic order on the national level, based on the ideal of social peace supplemented with economic expertise. Third his work at the League of Nations which convinced him of the need for a truly international order. When global economic integration failed to make the desired progress, he gradually became convinced that European integration could be a steppingstone toward international integration.

The full paper is available here.