The three women that form the focus of this special issue, Susan Stebbing (1895–1943), Susanne Langer (1895–1985), and Maria Kokoszyńska (1905–1981), belong to the first group of women who became recognized philosophers by obtaining a perma- nent university position in philosophy. Although there were women philosophers before the twentieth century, it was gen- erally impossible for them to develop a career at a university. For this we have to wait until the time after World War I. Steb- bing, Langer and Kokoszyńska can be seen as standing in the analytic tradition, in a narrow and wider sense. In the case of Stebbing and Kokoszyńska this claim is not controversial. Steb- bing was, for example, instrumental in the founding of Anal- ysis. While her interest in metaphysical analysis is distinctive she was part of a broader analytical conversation (e.g., Stebbing 1932). Kokoszyńska was a leading member of the Lvov-Warsaw School, which, early on already, Ernest Nagel identified as one the founding pillars of analytical philosophy (Nagel 1936). In the case of Langer, who is now primarily associated with Cas- sirer’s philosophy and her work in aesthetics, this identification is less obvious and we return to this below.
In the broader sense, analytic philosophy may be understood as aiming at precise concepts, providing a justification for pro- nounced theses, proclaiming an empirical or analytical method, and understanding itself as related to mathematics or the em- pirical sciences. In the twentieth century two important factors were added to analytic philosophy: the linguistic turn, and the application of a highly formalized method to problems of phi- losophy.