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The „UsedSoft“ decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) about the right of a buyer of a downloaded copy of a software to resell this copy triggered a controversial discussion about the applicability of the „exhaustion“ rule (US: first-sale doctrine) to Copyright protected digital goods (as, e.g., also e-books). This paper offers, in a first step, a systematic analysis and assessment of economic reasonings that have been discussed in the literature about exhaustion, and applies this framework, in a second step, to downloaded digital creative works.

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A great transformation is more than a cluster of reforms and also more than a mere transition between regimes. A sufficiently clear and specific conception of a great transformation not only yields a convenient shorthand term for comprehensive change, but also may contribute to asking the right questions regarding theoretical challenges and practical difficulties associated with comprehensive change.

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This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the contributions of the Austrian school of economics, with specific emphasis on post-WWII developments. After looking back, we review the contemporary development of the Austrian school and, in doing so, discuss the tensions, alternative paths, and the promising future of Austrian economics.

Politikwissenschaft

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Threats of mass revolts could effectively constrain a dictator’s public policy if it were not for the collective-action problem. Mass revolts nevertheless happen, but they follow a stochastic pattern. We describe this pattern in a threshold model of collective action and integrate it into an agency model which demonstrates how mass revolts can impact on a winning coalition’s incentives to keep backing an incumbent dictator.