The „UsedSoft“ decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) about the right of a buyer of a downloaded copy of a software to resell this copy triggered a controversial discussion about the applicability of the „exhaustion“ rule (US: first-sale doctrine) to Copyright protected digital goods (as, e.g., also e-books). This paper offers, in a first step, a systematic analysis and assessment of economic reasonings that have been discussed in the literature about exhaustion, and applies this framework, in a second step, to downloaded digital creative works.
A great transformation is more than a cluster of reforms and also more than a mere transition between regimes. A sufficiently clear and specific conception of a great transformation not only yields a convenient shorthand term for comprehensive change, but also may contribute to asking the right questions regarding theoretical challenges and practical difficulties associated with comprehensive change.
This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the contributions of the Austrian school of economics, with specific emphasis on post-WWII developments. After looking back, we review the contemporary development of the Austrian school and, in doing so, discuss the tensions, alternative paths, and the promising future of Austrian economics.
Threats of mass revolts could effectively constrain a dictator’s public policy if it were not for the collective-action problem. Mass revolts nevertheless happen, but they follow a stochastic pattern. We describe this pattern in a threshold model of collective action and integrate it into an agency model which demonstrates how mass revolts can impact on a winning coalition’s incentives to keep backing an incumbent dictator.
in: Kurz, H. D., Faccarello, G. (eds.), Handbook of the History of Economic Analysis – Great Economists Since Petty and Boisguilbert, Vol. 1, Edward Elgar, 2016.
Seit 1966 decken Ergänzungsleistungen (EL) zur AHV und IV vorhandene Lücken zwischen Renteneinkommen und Existenzminimum. Statt mit der Giesskanne werden damit effektiv und gezielt Bedürftige unterstützt. Von der Öffentlichkeit und der Politik lange kaum wahrgenommen, entwickelten die EL allerdings eine weit über dem Wirtschaftswachstum liegende Ausgabendynamik.
We develop a model of insurrection markets and integrate the youth bulge as measured by the relative youth cohort size. As youth-specific characteristics we define the young person’s attitude toward revolutionary groups and the government, the degree of risk aversion and the relative productivity of young people on the insurrection market as compared to the official labor market.
The theoretical literature on fiscal federalism has identified several channels through which government decentralization could affect economic growth. Much of the literature focuses on the efficiency aspects of a decentralized provision of public services, but decentralization may also increase growth by raising the ability of the political system to innovate and carry out reforms. In contrast, some authors argue that decentralization increases corruption and government inefficiency, and thus may diminish growth. Given this theoretical ambiguity, several studies have attempted to identify the effect of decentralization on economic growth empirically over the last two decades. We review and conduct a meta-analysis of this empirical literature. Based on our analysis, we point out open questions and discuss possible ways to answer them.