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There is something extreme about Ludwig von Mises’s methodological apriorism, namely, his epistemological justification of the a priori element(s) of economic theory. His critics have long recognized and attacked the extremeness of Mises’s epistemology of a priori knowledge. However, several of his defenders have neglected what is (and what has long been recognized by his… Read more »

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This paper analyzes how fake news may have an effect on individual decisionmaking in the political sphere. To this end, arguments from the standard model of voter behaviour with full rationality are discussed as well as arguments from Behavioural Political Economy, which incorporates systematic psychological biases. It is argued that, by and large, the main… Read more »

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Economic governance in Europe has changed significantly since the financial and sovereign debt cirsis. Before the criris, the EU relied on a set of relatively simple numerical fiscal rules that were not, however, reliably enforced. The crisis has been widely interpreted as a failure of the original framework. Consequently, far-reaching reform packages have been implemented… Read more »

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Germany has been only mildly affected by the shock of the 2008 financial crisis and this chapter argues that Germany’s economic circumstances were quite different from many other federal countries included within the volume. The fiscal crisis has, however, occurred in a period where intergovernmental relations within Germany have already been very much in flux… Read more »

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In this paper I distinguish four methods of empirical inquiry in eighteenth century natural philosophy. In particular, I distinguish among what I call, (i) the mathematical-experimental method; (ii) the method of experimental series; (iii) the method of inspecting ideas; (iv) the method of natural history. While such a list is not exhaustive of the methods… Read more »

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This paper argues that often when Adam Smith used the word ‘natural’, it was not in contradistinction to supernatural, social or artificial; but to ‘violent.’ Furthermore, Smith models, in part, his distinction between natural and violent on Aristotle’s use. Smith explains the distinction in his study of the history of physics and astronomy. In those… Read more »

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This article addresses the question how philosophy should be evaluated in a research‐grant funding environment. It offers a new conception of philosophy that is inclusive and builds on familiar elements of professional, philosophical practice. Philosophy systematically questions the questions we ask, the concepts we use, and the values we hold. Its product is therefore rarely… Read more »

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The three women that form the focus of this special issue, Susan Stebbing (1895–1943), Susanne Langer (1895–1985), and Maria Kokoszyńska (1905–1981), belong to the first group of women who became recognized philosophers by obtaining a perma- nent university position in philosophy. Although there were women philosophers before the twentieth century, it was gen- erally impossible… Read more »